Ten Things You Should Know About Marine Debris

What do you know about this global problem?

green turtle entangled in net

Impacts to Marine Life

Marine debris can entangle and harm marine organisms. For air-breathing organisms, such as the green sea turtle, entanglement in debris can prevent animals from being able to swim to the surface, causing them to drown.

Our waterways are littered with stuff that doesn't belong in them. Plastic bags, cigarette butts, fishing nets, sunken vessels, glass bottles, abandoned crab traps...the list is endless. Some of this marine debris comes from human activity at sea, and some of it makes its way into our waterways from land.

While we know that marine debris is bad for the environment, harms wildlife, and threatens human health and navigation, there is much we don't know. How much marine debris is in our environment? How long does it last? How harmful is it to natural resources or human health and safety? How long does it take to break down in the water?

The NOAA Marine Debris Program is finding answers to these questions.

  • 1. It doesn't stay put.

    While a lot of debris sinks, much of it will also float. Once this marine debris enters the ocean, it moves via oceanic currents and atmospheric winds. Factors that affect currents and winds (for example, El NiƱo and seasonal changes) also affect the movement of marine debris in the ocean. Debris is often carried far from its origin, which makes it difficult to determine exactly where an item came from.
  • 2. It comes in many forms.

    Marine debris comes in many forms, ranging from small plastic cigarette butts to 4,000-pound derelict fishing nets. Plastic bags, glass, metal, foamed plastic, tires, derelict fishing gear, and abandoned vessels are all examples of debris that often ends up in our waterways.
  • 3. It's your problem too.

    Marine debris is a problem for all of us. It affects everything from the environment to the economy; from fishing and navigation to human health and safety; from the tiniest coral polyps to giant blue whales.
  • 4. NOAA is fighting this problem.

    The NOAA Marine Debris Program works in the U.S. and around the world to research, reduce, and prevent debris in our ocean and coastal waterways. Much of this work is done in partnership with other agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia, industry, and private businesses. The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act, signed into law in 2006, formally created the Marine Debris Program. The Act directs NOAA to map, identify, measure impacts of, remove, and prevent marine debris.
  • 5. Some debris is being turned into energy.

    Abandoned and lost fishing gear is a big problem. It entangles and kills marine life and is a hazard to navigation. Based on a model program in Hawaii, the Fishing for Energy program was formed in 2008 to tackle this problem with creative new ideas. The program is a partnership between NOAA, Covanta Energy Corporation, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and Schnitzer Steel. This program offers the fishing community a no-cost way to dispose of old or derelict fishing gear. Once removed from the environment, the gear is transported to the nearest Covanta Energy-from-Waste facility. About one ton of derelict nets creates enough electricity to power one home for 25 days!
  • 6. Marine debris can hurt or kill animals.

    Marine debris may be mistaken by some animals for food or eaten accidentally. Often, larger items like nets, fishing line, and abandoned crab pots snare or trap animals. Entanglement can lead to injury, illness, suffocation, starvation, and even death. NOAA is working with many partners to tackle this problem by reducing and preventing marine debris in our ocean and waterways.
  • 7. Most debris items take a long time to degrade in the environment.

    Many factors determine how long it will take for debris to degrade, such as material type, size, thickness, and environmental conditions.
  • 8. You can help us get the word out!

    The NOAA Marine Debris Program offers lots of creative products to get the word out about marine debris. You can find brochures, posters, fact sheets, videos, and a link to their blog.
  • 9. This is a global problem.

    Marine debris is a global problem that requires global solutions. NOAA funds projects across the country and works with scientists and experts around the globe to better understand how marine debris moves, where it comes from, and how it affects the environment. This knowledge will help us find better ways to tackle the problem.
  • 10. Small steps lead to big results.

    Fighting the marine debris problem begins at home. There are steps you can take to help with the problem of marine debris:
    • - Try to cut back on the amount of trash you produce.
    • - Opt for reusable items instead of single-use products.
    • - Recycle as much of your trash as you can.
    • - Join local efforts to pick up trash.
    • - Keep streets, sidewalks, parking lots, and storm drains free of trash.
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Did you know?

Microplastics are small plastic pieces less than five millimeters long which can be harmful to our ocean and aquatic life. Microplastics can come from a variety of sources including larger plastic pieces that have broken apart, resin pellets used for plastic manufacturing, or in the form of microbeads, which are small, manufactured plastic beads used in health and beauty products.


Last updated: 10/10/17
Author: NOAA
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