- Roadmap to Resources
- Tutorial PDF
- Subject Review
- Podcast - Estuaries
- What is an Estuary?
- Economy and Environment
- Ecosystem Services
- Water Circulation
- Estuarine Habitats
- Adaptations to Life in the Estuary
- Monitoring Estuaries
- The Future
Why Are Estuaries Important?
Disturbances to Estuaries
Association of National Estuary Programs (ANEP). 1998. Preserving Our Heritage, Securing Our Future: A Report to the Citizens of the Nation. Washington, DC: ANEP. 49 pp.
Beck, M.W., K.L Heck, K.W. Able, D.L. Childers, D.B. Eggleston, B.M. Gillanders, B.S. Halpern, C.G. Hays, K. Hoshino, T.J. Minello, R.J. Orth, P.F. Sheridan, and M.P. Weinstein. 2003. The Role of Nearshore Ecosystems as Fish and Shellfish Nurseries. Issues in Ecology No. 11, Ecological Society of America http://www.esa.org/science/Issues/FileEnglish/issue11.pdf
Bertness, M.D. 1999. The Ecology of Atlantic Shorelines. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
Boesch, D.F., J.C. Field, and D. Scavia (editors). 2000. The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources: Report of the Coastal Areas and Marine Resources Sector Team, U.S. National Assessement of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, U.S. Global Change Research Program. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 21. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA Coastal Ocean Program. 163 pp. http://www.cop.noaa.gov/pubs/das/das21.pdf
California Coastal Commission. 2003. Waves, Wetlands, and Watersheds. California Coastal Commission Science Activity Guide. http://www.coastal.ca.gov/publiced/pendx.html
Carpenter, S. N.F. Caraco, D.L. Correll, R. W. Howarth, A.N. Sharpley, and V.H. Smith. 1998. Nonpoint Pollution of Surface Waters with Phosphorus and Nitrogen. Issues in Ecology No. 3, Ecological Society of America. http://www.esa.org/science/Issues/FileEnglish/issue3.pdf
Carson, R. 1940. Under the Sea-Wind: A Naturalist's Picture of Ocean Life. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Daily, G.C., S. Alexander, P.R. Ehrlich, L. Goulder, J. Lubchenco, P.A. Matson, H.A. Mooney, S. Postel, S.H. Schneider, D. Tilman, and G.M. Woodwell. 1997. Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems. Issues in Ecology No. 2, Ecological Society of America. http://www.esa.org/science/Issues/FileEnglish/issue2.pdf
Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). 2000. FDEP Web Site. http://www.dep.state.fl.us/coastal/habitats/mangroves.htm
Good, J.W., J.W. Weber, J.W. Charland, J.V. Olson, and K.A. Chapin. 1998. National Coastal Zone Management Effectiveness Study: Protecting Estuaries and Coastal Wetlands. Final Report to the NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources Management. Oregon Sea Grant Special Report PI-98-001. Corvallis, OR: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Howarth, R., D. Anderson, J. Cloern, Ch. Elfring, C. Hopkinson, B. Lapointe, T. Malone, N. Marcus, K. McGlathery, A. Sharpley, and D. Walker. 2000. Nutrient Pollution of Coastal Rivers, Bays, and Seas. Issues in Ecology No. 7, Ecological Society of America. http://www.esa.org/science/Issues/FileEnglish/issue7.pdf
Levinton, J.S. 1995. Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mack, R.N., D. Simberloff, W.M. Lonsdale, H. Evans, M. Clout, and F. Bazzaz. 2000. Biotic Invasions: Causes, Epidemiology, Global Consequences and Control. Issues in Ecology No. 5, Ecological Society of America. http://www.esa.org/science/Issues/
Molles Jr., M.C. 2002. Ecology: Concepts and Applications. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Narragansett Bay Estuary Program. Date unknown. Narragansett Bay Estuary Program: About the Bay. Accessed March 2, 2004 from: http://www.nbep.org/bay/index.html
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2001. NMFS Office of Protected Resources Web Site. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1990. Estuaries of the United States: Vital Statistics of a Natural Resource Base. Rockville, MD: NOAA National Ocean Service.
National Safety Council's Environmental Center. 1998. Coastal Challenges: A Guide to Coastal and Marine Issues. Prepared in conjunction with Coastal America. http://www.nsc.org/ehc/guidebks/coasttoc.htm
Niesen, T.M. 1982. The Marine Biology Coloring Book. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.Northern Territory Government (Australia). 2000. Mangrove Ecology Fact Sheet. Northern Territory Government: Department of Infrastructure, Planning, and Environment. 2 pp. http://www.lpe.nt.gov.au/advis/land/mangrove/factsheets/pdf/mangrove_ecology_lq.pdf
Office of Naval Research. Date unknown. Science and Technology Focus: Oceanography. U.S. Department of the Navy. Accessed February 6, 2004 from: http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/default.htm
Pimentel, D., L. Lach, R. Zuniga, and D. Morrison. 1999. Environmental and Economic Costs Associated with Non-Indigenous Species in the United States. Cornell University. Manuscript available online: http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Jan99/species_costs.html.
Pritchard, D.W. 1967. What is an Estuary: Physical Viewpoint. Pp. 3-5 in: Estuaries, G.H. Lauff (editor). American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Publication No. 83. Washington, DC: AAAS. 757 pp.
Ricklefs, R.E. and G.L. Miller. 2000. Ecology (fourth edition). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Ross, D.A. 1995. Introduction to Oceanography. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.
Scowcroft, G.A. et al. 2001. Discovery of Estuarine Environments. Office of Marine Programs, University of Rhode Island. Kingston: URI. http://omp.gso.uri.edu/doee/doee.htm
Sumich, J.L. 1996. An Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life (sixth edition). Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown.
University of Rhode Island (URI). 2001. Discovery of Estuarine Environments Web site. Office of Marine Programs. http://omp.gso.uri.edu/doee/doee.htm
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1993. Volunteer Estuary Monitoring: A Methods Manual. EPA 842-B-93-004. Washington, DC: USEPA Office of Water. 176 pp. http://www.epa.gov/owow/estuaries/monitor/
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1998. Pfiesteria piscicida Fact Sheet. EPA 842-F-98-011. Washington, DC: USEPA Office of Water. http://www.epa.gov/owow/estuaries/pfiesteria/fact.html
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Date unknown. National Estuary Program: Challenges Facing Our Estuaries—Key Management Issues. National Estuary Program. Accessed February 5, 2004 from: http://www.epa.gov/owow/estuaries/about3.htm#intro
Wasson, K., D. Lohrer, M. Crawford, and S. Rumrill. 2002. Non-native Species in Our Nation’s Estuaries: A Framework for an Invasion Monitoring Program. National Estuarine Research Reserve Technical Report Series 2002:1. http://www.nerrs.noaa.gov/Invasive/nonnative.pdf