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What is the geoid?

17 November 2011, 5:58 pm

Geoid model

While we often think of the earth as a sphere, our planet is actually very bumpy and irregular.

The radius at the equator is larger than at the poles due to the long-term effects of the earth's rotation.  And, at a smaller scale, there is topography—mountains have more mass than a valley and thus the pull of gravity is regionally stronger near mountains.

All of these large and small variations to the size, shape, and mass distribution of the earth cause slight variations in the acceleration of gravity (or the "strength" of gravity's pull). These variations determine the shape of the planet's liquid environment.

If one were to remove the tides and currents from the ocean, it would settle onto a smoothly undulating shape (rising where gravity is high, sinking where gravity is low).

This irregular shape is called "the geoid," a surface which defines zero elevation. Using complex math and gravity readings on land, surveyors extend this
imaginary line through the continents. This model
is used to measure surface elevations with a high
degree of accuracy.

For more information:
National Geodetic Survey
National Spatial Reference System
NGS Geoid information
Diving Deeper Podcast, What is geodesy?

Original article: What is the geoid?