Octopuses are boneless creatures. They are invertebrates with extremely flexible bodies that can squeeze through incredibly small spaces. An octopus has three hearts, nine brains, and blue blood. Two hearts pump blood to the gills, while a third circulates it to the rest of the body. The nervous system includes a central brain and a large ganglion at the base of each arm which controls movement. Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein hemocyanin, which is more efficient than hemoglobin for oxygen transport at very low temperatures and low oxygen concentrations. Octopus, along with squid, cuttlefish, and nautalis, are cephalopods. Most of the hundreds of species of cephalopods have three hearts.
On June 20, 2012, the M/V Zhen Hua 13 delivered new cranes from China to the Port of Baltimore by navigating the waters of Chesapeake Bay. To reach this destination, the cranes had to clear a major obstacle—passing under the Chesapeake Bay Bridge outside of Annapolis. As the cranes slid under the bridge, the National Ocean Service provided air gap information as part of the Northern Chesapeake Bay Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS®). These measurements, along with real-time tides and current data, helped to ensure a safe and early passage of the ship in to the Port of Baltimore.
As multi-year sea ice continues to disappear at a rapid rate, vessel traffic in the Arctic is on the rise. NOAA is working to update Arctic nautical charts, add new tide and current monitoring stations, and conduct geodetic surveys to support safe navigation, national security, and economic growth in the region.